University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
College of Biological Sciences
http://www.cbs.umn.edu/

All Methods

Log Out

Methods for Experiment 064 -

Animal Sampling Methods

Pocket gophers are trapped out of E064 as soon as they appear (seldom).

Field Operations: Fencing

The plots receiving herbivore exclusion treatments in experiment 64 are enclosed by a fence to exclude gophers and deer or gophers alone. Plots are 12m x 12m. In plots receiving gopher removal treatment, fencing material is buried 4 feet below ground. Plots receiving deer removal treatment are surrounded by a deer fence that is 6 feet above ground. Those plots with gopher/deer removal treatment, are 12m x 15m. A 3m strip along the end of the plot farthest from the woods is fenced to exclude grasshoppers.

Field Operations: Gopher mounds

Gopher mounds are mapped at 1-2 week intervals during the growing season using the 10 x 10 grid of sample points for reference. Mound maps are then used to determine the number and size of mounds in each plot, and the total area that was disturbed each year.

Field Operations: Mammal Trapping

Pocket gophers are trapped out of the plots receiving gopher removal treatments, as soon as they appear. Gopher mounds are then removed and vegetation is unburied.

Field Operations: Plots

Fifteen plots were established in 1989 along the south and east margins of field 28, a field that was last cultivated in 1988. Plots were placed 10 m from the forest-field margin, with approximately 8 m between plots. Treatments are 1) unfenced control, 2) gopher exclosure, and 3) gopher and deer exclosure. Gopher exclosures were fenced with 1in mesh welded wire buried vertically from the soil surface to a depth of 48in, and with a 24in width of 1in mesh welded wire attached to the bottom of the vertical wire extending horizontally away from the plot. Hardware cloth, 0.25in mesh, 24in wide, was attached to the top of the vertical welded wire and held above ground with metal stakes. Gopher and deer exclosures were fenced the same way as gopher exclosures, with the addition of 6

Field Operations: Soils

A 10 cm deep soil core was taken at each of the sample points when the plots were established. These samples were analyzed for total carbon and nitrogen using a Carlo Erba CHN analyzer. These samples are archived for future analyses.

Field Operations: Vegetation

Vegetation is sampled in mid-summer by recording all species present in four 10 x 10 cm quadrats centered around each of the 100 sample points in each plot.

Field Operations: trees

All trees have been mapped, tagged, and measured along the forest-field margin since 1992. Trees are mapped using stakes at the corner of each plot. Tree height is measured as the maximum vertical height of the previous years growth, measured from the base of the stem. The presence of browsing on terminal or lateral branches is recorded for each tree.

Sampling

In 1990, vegetation samples were clipped, sorted to species, dried and weighed. Frequency sampling was also done at each of 100 points within each plot.

1990: clipped 8 strips, each 10cm wide and 2m long, in each plot.

sampled grasshoppers by sweeping in each plot

frequency data for plant species at 100 points/plot

In 1991, the frequency sampling was repeated and a smaller number of strips

were clipped in each plot. Soil height at each of the 100 sample points

in each plot were also measured.

1991: frequency data for plant species at 100 points/plot

sampled grasshoppers by sweeping in each plot

mineralization samples in each plot (12/plot)

clipped 1 strip/plot (10cm wide and 2m long)

Treatment layout : trmte64

Additional notes: Herbivore exclusion treatment: 1=control 2=gopher removal 3=gopher/deer removal 4=gopher/deer/grasshopper removal

Field/IdentificationExperiment Number Main Plot Exclusion Treatment
E6411
E6422
E643A3
E643B4
E6441
E645A3
E645B4
E6462
E6471
E6482
E649A3
E649B4
E64102
E6411A3
E6411B4
E64121
E6413A3
E6413B4
E64142
E64151
 

nohe064 - Soil nitrate and ammonium

Abstract

The goal of this experiment is to determine the effects of pocket gophers and deer on succesesional changes and the development of heterogeneity in soils and vegetation in an old-field. This is a long-term experiment and will be sampled through the year 2000. Major herbivores are excluded from fifteen 12m x 12m plots in a newly abandoned old field. Main treatments include gopher removals, all large vertebrate removals, and controls. Smaller (3m x 12m) grasshopper removals are nested within main treatments. Gopher disturbance will be quantified throughout the summer season. Soils ( including N mineralization) and vegetation will be sampled regularly on 100-point grids within each plot. For a list of treatments, see the treatment layouts in file Link==>e064/treatment trmte64.

Animal Sampling Methods

E064: Pocket gophers are trapped out of E064 as soon as they appear (seldom).

Field Operations

Fencing The plots receiving herbivore exclusion treatments in experiment 64 are enclosed by a fence to exclude gophers and deer or gophers alone. Plots are 12m x 12m. In plots receiving gopher removal treatment, fencing material is buried 4 feet below ground. Plots receiving deer removal treatment are surrounded by a deer fence that is 6 feet above ground. Those plots with gopher/deer removal treatment, are 12m x 15m. A 3m strip along the end of the plot farthest from the woods is fenced to exclude grasshoppers. Mammal Trapping Pocket gophers are trapped out of the plots receiving gopher removal treatments, as soon as they appear. Gopher mounds are then removed and vegetation is unburied. Gopher mounds Gopher mounds are mapped at 1-2 week intervals during the growing season using the 10 x 10 grid of sample points for reference. Mound maps are then used to determine the number and size of mounds in each plot, and the total area that was disturbed each year. Soils A 10 cm deep soil core was taken at each of the sample points when the plots were established. These samples were analyzed for total carbon and nitrogen using a Carlo Erba CHN analyzer. These samples are archived for future analyses. Plots Fifteen plots were established in 1989 along the south and east margins of field 28, a field that was last cultivated in 1988. Plots were placed 10 m from the forest-field margin, with approximately 8 m between plots. Treatments are 1) unfenced control, 2) gopher exclosure, and 3) gopher and deer exclosure. Gopher exclosures were fenced with 1in mesh welded wire buried vertically from the soil surface to a depth of 48in, and with a 24in width of 1in mesh welded wire attached to the bottom of the vertical wire extending horizontally away from the plot. Hardware cloth, 0.25in mesh, 24in wide, was attached to the top of the vertical welded wire and held above ground with metal stakes. Gopher and deer exclosures were fenced the same way as gopher exclosures, with the addition of 6 Vegetation Vegetation is sampled in mid-summer by recording all species present in four 10 x 10 cm quadrats centered around each of the 100 sample points in each plot. Trees All trees have been mapped, tagged, and measured along the forest-field margin since 1992. Trees are mapped using stakes at the corner of each plot. Tree height is measured as the maximum vertical height of the previous years growth, measured from the base of the stem. The presence of browsing on terminal or lateral branches is recorded for each tree.

Sampling For E064

In 1990, vegetation samples were clipped, sorted to species, dried and weighed. Frequency sampling was also done at each of 100 points within each plot. 1990: clipped 8 strips, each 10cm wide and 2m long, in each plot. sampled grasshoppers by sweeping in each plot frequency data for plant species at 100 points/plot In 1991, the frequency sampling was repeated and a smaller number of strips were clipped in each plot. Soil height at each of the 100 sample points in each plot were also measured. 1991: frequency data for plant species at 100 points/plot sampled grasshoppers by sweeping in each plot mineralization samples in each plot (12/plot) clipped 1 strip/plot (10cm wide and 2m long)

Treatment Layout: trmte64

Additional notes: Herbivore exclusion treatment: 1=control 2=gopher removal 3=gopher/deer removal 4=gopher/deer/grasshopper removal Field/Identification,Experiment Number,Main Plot,Exclusion Treatment E,64,1,1 E,64,2,2 E,64,3A,3 E,64,3B,4 E,64,4,1 E,64,5A,3 E,64,5B,4 E,64,6,2 E,64,7,1 E,64,8,2 E,64,9A,3 E,64,9B,4 E,64,10,2 E,64,11A,3 E,64,11B,4 E,64,12,1 E,64,13A,3 E,64,13B,4 E,64,14,2 E,64,15,1

she064 - Shrub data

Abstract

The goal of this experiment is to determine the effects of pocket gophers and deer on succesesional changes and the development of heterogeneity in soils and vegetation in an old-field. This is a long-term experiment and will be sampled through the year 2000. Major herbivores are excluded from fifteen 12m x 12m plots in a newly abandoned old field. Main treatments include gopher removals, all large vertebrate removals, and controls. Smaller (3m x 12m) grasshopper removals are nested within main treatments. Gopher disturbance will be quantified throughout the summer season. Soils ( including N mineralization) and vegetation will be sampled regularly on 100-point grids within each plot. For a list of treatments, see the treatment layouts in file Link==>e064/treatment trmte64.

Animal Sampling Methods

E064: Pocket gophers are trapped out of E064 as soon as they appear (seldom).

Field Operations

Fencing The plots receiving herbivore exclusion treatments in experiment 64 are enclosed by a fence to exclude gophers and deer or gophers alone. Plots are 12m x 12m. In plots receiving gopher removal treatment, fencing material is buried 4 feet below ground. Plots receiving deer removal treatment are surrounded by a deer fence that is 6 feet above ground. Those plots with gopher/deer removal treatment, are 12m x 15m. A 3m strip along the end of the plot farthest from the woods is fenced to exclude grasshoppers. Mammal Trapping Pocket gophers are trapped out of the plots receiving gopher removal treatments, as soon as they appear. Gopher mounds are then removed and vegetation is unburied. Gopher mounds Gopher mounds are mapped at 1-2 week intervals during the growing season using the 10 x 10 grid of sample points for reference. Mound maps are then used to determine the number and size of mounds in each plot, and the total area that was disturbed each year. Soils A 10 cm deep soil core was taken at each of the sample points when the plots were established. These samples were analyzed for total carbon and nitrogen using a Carlo Erba CHN analyzer. These samples are archived for future analyses. Plots Fifteen plots were established in 1989 along the south and east margins of field 28, a field that was last cultivated in 1988. Plots were placed 10 m from the forest-field margin, with approximately 8 m between plots. Treatments are 1) unfenced control, 2) gopher exclosure, and 3) gopher and deer exclosure. Gopher exclosures were fenced with 1in mesh welded wire buried vertically from the soil surface to a depth of 48in, and with a 24in width of 1in mesh welded wire attached to the bottom of the vertical wire extending horizontally away from the plot. Hardware cloth, 0.25in mesh, 24in wide, was attached to the top of the vertical welded wire and held above ground with metal stakes. Gopher and deer exclosures were fenced the same way as gopher exclosures, with the addition of 6 Vegetation Vegetation is sampled in mid-summer by recording all species present in four 10 x 10 cm quadrats centered around each of the 100 sample points in each plot. Trees All trees have been mapped, tagged, and measured along the forest-field margin since 1992. Trees are mapped using stakes at the corner of each plot. Tree height is measured as the maximum vertical height of the previous years growth, measured from the base of the stem. The presence of browsing on terminal or lateral branches is recorded for each tree.

Sampling For E064

In 1990, vegetation samples were clipped, sorted to species, dried and weighed. Frequency sampling was also done at each of 100 points within each plot. 1990: clipped 8 strips, each 10cm wide and 2m long, in each plot. sampled grasshoppers by sweeping in each plot frequency data for plant species at 100 points/plot In 1991, the frequency sampling was repeated and a smaller number of strips were clipped in each plot. Soil height at each of the 100 sample points in each plot were also measured. 1991: frequency data for plant species at 100 points/plot sampled grasshoppers by sweeping in each plot mineralization samples in each plot (12/plot) clipped 1 strip/plot (10cm wide and 2m long)

Treatment Layout: trmte64

Additional notes: Herbivore exclusion treatment: 1=control 2=gopher removal 3=gopher/deer removal 4=gopher/deer/grasshopper removal Field/Identification,Experiment Number,Main Plot,Exclusion Treatment E,64,1,1 E,64,2,2 E,64,3A,3 E,64,3B,4 E,64,4,1 E,64,5A,3 E,64,5B,4 E,64,6,2 E,64,7,1 E,64,8,2 E,64,9A,3 E,64,9B,4 E,64,10,2 E,64,11A,3 E,64,11B,4 E,64,12,1 E,64,13A,3 E,64,13B,4 E,64,14,2 E,64,15,1

tne064 - Plant tissue nitrogen

Abstract

The goal of this experiment is to determine the effects of pocket gophers and deer on succesesional changes and the development of heterogeneity in soils and vegetation in an old-field. This is a long-term experiment and will be sampled through the year 2000. Major herbivores are excluded from fifteen 12m x 12m plots in a newly abandoned old field. Main treatments include gopher removals, all large vertebrate removals, and controls. Smaller (3m x 12m) grasshopper removals are nested within main treatments. Gopher disturbance will be quantified throughout the summer season. Soils ( including N mineralization) and vegetation will be sampled regularly on 100-point grids within each plot. For a list of treatments, see the treatment layouts in file Link==>e064/treatment trmte64.

Animal Sampling Methods

E064: Pocket gophers are trapped out of E064 as soon as they appear (seldom).

Field Operations

Fencing The plots receiving herbivore exclusion treatments in experiment 64 are enclosed by a fence to exclude gophers and deer or gophers alone. Plots are 12m x 12m. In plots receiving gopher removal treatment, fencing material is buried 4 feet below ground. Plots receiving deer removal treatment are surrounded by a deer fence that is 6 feet above ground. Those plots with gopher/deer removal treatment, are 12m x 15m. A 3m strip along the end of the plot farthest from the woods is fenced to exclude grasshoppers. Mammal Trapping Pocket gophers are trapped out of the plots receiving gopher removal treatments, as soon as they appear. Gopher mounds are then removed and vegetation is unburied. Gopher mounds Gopher mounds are mapped at 1-2 week intervals during the growing season using the 10 x 10 grid of sample points for reference. Mound maps are then used to determine the number and size of mounds in each plot, and the total area that was disturbed each year. Soils A 10 cm deep soil core was taken at each of the sample points when the plots were established. These samples were analyzed for total carbon and nitrogen using a Carlo Erba CHN analyzer. These samples are archived for future analyses. Plots Fifteen plots were established in 1989 along the south and east margins of field 28, a field that was last cultivated in 1988. Plots were placed 10 m from the forest-field margin, with approximately 8 m between plots. Treatments are 1) unfenced control, 2) gopher exclosure, and 3) gopher and deer exclosure. Gopher exclosures were fenced with 1in mesh welded wire buried vertically from the soil surface to a depth of 48in, and with a 24in width of 1in mesh welded wire attached to the bottom of the vertical wire extending horizontally away from the plot. Hardware cloth, 0.25in mesh, 24in wide, was attached to the top of the vertical welded wire and held above ground with metal stakes. Gopher and deer exclosures were fenced the same way as gopher exclosures, with the addition of 6 Vegetation Vegetation is sampled in mid-summer by recording all species present in four 10 x 10 cm quadrats centered around each of the 100 sample points in each plot. Trees All trees have been mapped, tagged, and measured along the forest-field margin since 1992. Trees are mapped using stakes at the corner of each plot. Tree height is measured as the maximum vertical height of the previous years growth, measured from the base of the stem. The presence of browsing on terminal or lateral branches is recorded for each tree.

Sampling For E064

In 1990, vegetation samples were clipped, sorted to species, dried and weighed. Frequency sampling was also done at each of 100 points within each plot. 1990: clipped 8 strips, each 10cm wide and 2m long, in each plot. sampled grasshoppers by sweeping in each plot frequency data for plant species at 100 points/plot In 1991, the frequency sampling was repeated and a smaller number of strips were clipped in each plot. Soil height at each of the 100 sample points in each plot were also measured. 1991: frequency data for plant species at 100 points/plot sampled grasshoppers by sweeping in each plot mineralization samples in each plot (12/plot) clipped 1 strip/plot (10cm wide and 2m long)

Treatment Layout: trmte64

Additional notes: Herbivore exclusion treatment: 1=control 2=gopher removal 3=gopher/deer removal 4=gopher/deer/grasshopper removal Field/Identification,Experiment Number,Main Plot,Exclusion Treatment E,64,1,1 E,64,2,2 E,64,3A,3 E,64,3B,4 E,64,4,1 E,64,5A,3 E,64,5B,4 E,64,6,2 E,64,7,1 E,64,8,2 E,64,9A,3 E,64,9B,4 E,64,10,2 E,64,11A,3 E,64,11B,4 E,64,12,1 E,64,13A,3 E,64,13B,4 E,64,14,2 E,64,15,1