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Methods for Experiment 123 -

Design details: Experimental layout and setup

Biodiversity I was initiated by removing existing vegetation from an old field in 1993. To do this herbicide was applied to the area and the area was burned in August. The upper 6 to 8 inches of soil was removed to reduce the seed bank. The area was then plowed and repeatedly harrowed.

The 147 plots, each 3 x 3 m , were separated by 1 or 2 m walkways. Plots were planted in May of 1994. With a few exceptions, seed were purchased from Prairie Restoration, Inc., Princeton, MN. Each plot received 10 g/m2 of seed, in total, with equal masses of each species being added. Seeds were manually spread across a plot, raked into plot the upper 1 cm of soil, and soil compacted with a hand-pulled water-filled roller. Plots were initially watered twice a week from an elevated boadrwalk in order to aid in establishment of the plants.

Design details: Field Operations

Plots were watered to receive 2 to 3 cm of water per week from late May through late September of each growing season, and manually weeded four to six times each growing season. All weeding and sampling was done from the elevated moveable platforms to prevent disturbance that might be caused by entry into the plots.

Sampling for plant cover (visually estimated, to species), for the proportion of incident light intercepted by vegetation, and for extractable soil nitrate in the rooting zone (0-20 cm depths), and occasionally for soil nitrate below the rooting zone (40-60 cm depths), for aboveground living plant biomass, and belowground plant biomass (root mass) occurs in this experiment.

Design details: Randomization details

The randomization of the 147 plots to one of 7 species richness treatments resulted in 20 replicates each for 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 species, 23 replicates for 12 species, and 24 replicates for 24 species. Plant species used are perennial herbaceous species that occur in the grasslands and prairie-like savanna openings of this region. The species added to each plot were chosen by a separate, random draw of the appropriate number of species from the pool of 24 species.

Numbering of plots

Plots are organized into three 7x7 squares. Numbering starts in the southeast corner and increments left to right in odd rows and right to left in even rows.

Sampling Methods: Vegetation Sampling

Percent cover of each species is taken in 2 permanently marked quadrats within each plot. Percent cover of all the species together is taken in 2 quadrats associated with the permanently marked quadrats. Percent cover is an observational sampling only.

Aboveground biomass from each plot has been sampled by clipping 3m x 0.1m strips. The biomass has been sorted, dried, and weighed separately for each strip. Different areas of the plot have been sampled each year. See aboveground vegetation sampling for details on equipment and other field methods.

Root biomass is sampled after clipping by collecting three 5 cm diameter x 20 cm deep cores per clipped strip. Roots are washed free of soil, sorted from other organic material, dried and weighed. The content of carbon and nitrogen in aboveground and below ground biomass periodically ascertained.

Note: Vegetation Sampling map depicts general locations and is not to scale.

Seeding rates in 1994

The seeding rate varied by species and treatment according to the following tables.

Category Grams per Plot Plots
Achillea millefolium (Forb)
Monocultures90 021 036
2-species plots 45 003 097
4-species plots 22.5 073 109
6-species plots 15 009 022 024 060 099 105 135
8-species plots 11.25 002 023 031 040 051 056 077 104
12-species plots 7.5 001 013 026 044 046 062 064 096 119 132 138 144
24-species plots 3.75 007 015 017 019 028 034 041 047 063 075 084 085 088 094 101 107 111 117 124 129 131 139 142 145
Agropyron smithii (C-3)
2-species plots 45 083 097
6-species plots 15 022 070 078 080 098 102 126
8-species plots 11.25 048 051 072 115
12-species plots 7.5 013 016 026 046 057 064 074 093 095 096 119 132 133 138
24-species plots 3.75 007 015 017 019 028 034 041 047 063 075 084 085 088 094 101 107 111 117 124 129 131 139 142 145
Andropogon gerardi (C-4)
Monocultures 90 049 128
2-species plots 45 005 136 143
4-species plots 22.5 033
6-species plots 15 029 032 052 060 061 080
8-species plots 11.25 072 104 115
12-species plots 7.5 013 044 057 062 068 096 110 118 119 132 138 146
24-species plots 3.75 007 015 017 019 028 034 041 047 063 075 084 085 088 094 101 107 111 117 124 129 131 139 142 145
Anemone cylindrica (Forb)
Monocultures 90 004 059
2-species plots 45 143
4-species plots 22.5 038 054 127 140
6-species plots 15 024 099 106 126 135
8-species plots 11.25 002 048 077 104 116 122 123
12-species plots 7.5 013 044 064 068 093 110 120 133 144 146
24-species plots 3.75 007 015 017 019 028 034 041 047 063 075 084 085 088 094 101 107 111 117 124 129 131 139 142 145
Asclepias tuberosa (Forb)
Monocultures 90 130
2-species plots 45 113
6-species plots 15 029 052 061 078 099 102
8-species plots 11.25 002 031 045 051 056 100 104 108 115 123 147
12-species plots 7.5 001 026 046 057 062 064 096 110 118 119 120 133 138 144 146
24-species plots 3.75 007 015 017 019 028 034 041 047 063 075 084 085 088 094 101 107 111 117 124 129 131 139 142 145
Aster azureus (Forb)
Monocultures 90 011
2-species plots 45 012 020 071
4-species plots 22.5 014 038 112 127 134
6-species plots 15 032 082
8-species plots 11.25 023 050 056 072 122
12-species plots 7.5 026 044 046 057 062 064 093 095 096 110 119 120 132 133 144
24-species plots 3.75 007 015 017 019 028 034 041 047 063 075 084 085 088 094 101 107 111 117 124 129 131 139 142 145
Astragalus canadensis (Legume)
2-species plots 45 025
4-species plots 22.5 035 042 065 073 091 140
6-species plots 15 009 029 032 052 070 098 099 105 106 126
8-species plots 11.25 045 050 104 115 116 147
12-species plots 7.5 001 016 026 044 068 074 095 096 110 118 132 133 138 146
24-species plots 3.75 007 015 017 019 028 034 041 047 063 075 084 085 088 094 101 107 111 117 124 129 131 139 142 145
Bouteloua gracilis (C-4)
2-species plots 45 003 141
4-species plots 22.5 042
6-species plots 15 098 105
8-species plots 11.25 045 048 077 108 116
12-species plots 7.5 062 064 068 096 119 132 133 138 144 146
24-species plots 3.75 007 015 017 019 028 034 041 047 063 075 084 085 088 094 101 107 111 117 124 129 131 139 142 145
Buchloe dactyloides (C-4)
Monocultures 90 114
2-species plots 45 012 027
4-species plots 22.5 058 065 140
6-species plots 15 009 022 061 070 080 082 098 105
8-species plots 11.25 023 048 056 100 108 137 147
12-species plots 7.5 001 016 046 057 074 093 096 110 119 120 132 144
24-species plots 3.75 007 015 017 019 028 034 041 047 063 075 084 085 088 094 101 107 111 117 124 129 131 139 142 145
Coreopsis palmata (Forb)
4-species plots 22.5 033 035 121
6-species plots 15 032 069 078 082
8-species plots 11.25 031 050 100 108 116 137
12-species plots 7.5 046 118 133 144
24-species plots 3.75 007 015 017 019 028 034 041 047 063 075 084 085 088 094 101 107 111 117 124 129 131 139 142 145
Elymus canadensis (C-3)
2-species plots 45 092
4-species plots 22.5 014 033 038 054
6-species plots 15 022 069 102 106
8-species plots 11.25 031 048 050 051 077 104 116 122 123
12-species plots 7.5 016 026 062 074 110 118 146
24-species plots 3.75 007 015 017 019 028 034 041 047 063 075 084 085 088 094 101 107 111 117 124 129 131 139 142 145
Euphorbia corollata (Forb)
Monocultures 90 039 043
2-species plots 45 066 083
4-species plots 22.5 112 134
6-species plots 15 029 052 069 098 102 106 135
8-species plots 11.25 023 040 077 100 115 122 147
12-species plots 7.5 001 016 046 057 068 074 093 095 110 118 119 132
24-species plots 3.75 007 015 017 019 028 034 041 047 063 075 084 085 088 094 101 107 111 117 124 129 131 139 142 145
Koeleria cristata (C-3)
2-species plots 45 025 053 066 081 136
4-species plots 22.5 018 030 042 058 073 109
6-species plots 15 029 052 060 082 126 135
8-species plots 11.25 002 023 031 045 056 123
12-species plots 7.5 016 026 057 062 064 068 074 133 144
24-species plots 3.75 007 015 017 019 028 034 041 047 063 075 084 085 088 094 101 107 111 117 124 129 131 139 142 145
Lespedeza capitata (Legume)
Monocultures 90 006
2-species plots 45 081 125
4-species plots 22.5 014 035 089 109 127
6-species plots 15 024 032 061 078 082 099
8-species plots 11.25 002 031 045 048 056 100 123
12-species plots 7.5 001 026 057 062 068 093 095 118 133 138 146
24-species plots 3.75 007 015 017 019 028 034 041 047 063 075 084 085 088 094 101 107 111 117 124 129 131 139 142 145
Liatris aspera (Forb)
4-species plots 22.5 018 042 065 134
6-species plots 15 029 060 135
8-species plots 11.25 031 040 050 056 100 108 116 122 123 137
12-species plots 7.5 013 044 057 064 074 093 110 120
24-species plots 3.75 007 015 017 019 028 034 041 047 063 075 084 085 088 094 101 107 111 117 124 129 131 139 142 145
Panicum virgatum (C-4)
Monocultures 90 010 076
4-species plots 22.5 008 035 065 089
6-species plots 15 080 099
8-species plots 11.25 040 050 051 072 137 147
12-species plots 7.5 001 013 016 044 062 064 068 095 096 110 119 120 132 144 146
24-species plots 3.75 007 015 017 019 028 034 041 047 063 075 084 085 088 094 101 107 111 117 124 129 131 139 142 145
Petalostemum purpureum (Legume)
Monocultures 90 079
2-species plots 45 125
4-species plots 22.5 030 058 109
6-species plots 15 024 060 070 102 106
8-species plots 11.25 040 045 051 104
12-species plots 7.5 013 026 046 062 064 074 095 096 110 118 120 133 146
24-species plots 3.75 007 015 017 019 028 034 041 047 063 075 084 085 088 094 101 107 111 117 124 129 131 139 142 145
Poa pratensis (C-3)
2-species plots 45 092
6-species plots 15 024 069 105 106
8-species plots 11.25 002 045 108 122 123 137 147
12-species plots 7.5 016 044 057 062 068 093 096 118 119 120 132 133 146
24-species plots 3.75 007 015 017 019 028 034 041 047 063 075 084 085 088 094 101 107 111 117 124 129 131 139 142 145
Rudbeckia hirta (Forb)
2-species plots 45 067
4-species plots 22.5 030 089 091
6-species plots 15 009 022 024 060 061 069 078
8-species plots 11.25 023 051 100 123
12-species plots 7.5 001 013 044 046 057 095 119 120 138 144
24-species plots 3.75 007 015 017 019 028 034 041 047 063 075 084 085 088 094 101 107 111 117 124 129 131 139 142 145
Schizachyrium scoparium (C-4)
Monocultures 90 037 055 087
2-species plots 45 141
4-species plots 22.5 014 121
6-species plots 15 009 080 126 135
8-species plots 11.25 045 050 072 100
12-species plots 7.5 001 013 016 026 046 064 068 074 093 095 120 132 138 146
24-species plots 3.75 007 015 017 019 028 034 041 047 063 075 084 085 088 094 101 107 111 117 124 129 131 139 142 145
Solidago nemoralis (Forb)
2-species plots 45 027
4-species plots 22.5 127 140
6-species plots 15 032 070 105 126
8-species plots 11.25 040 050 072 077 108 115 122 137
12-species plots 7.5 001 013 016 026 044 046 068 074 095 096 118 119 138
24-species plots 3.75 007 015 017 019 028 034 041 047 063 075 084 085 088 094 101 107 111 117 124 129 131 139 142 145
Sorghastrum nutans (C-4)
Monocultures 90 103
2-species plots 45 053 067 071 086
4-species plots 22.5 008 018 033 073 089 091 112 121 134
6-species plots 15 069 070 078 098
8-species plots 11.25 002 040 048 051 077 104 108 116 137 147
12-species plots 7.5 001 013 062 093 110 118 120 133 144 146
24-species plots 3.75 007 015 017 019 028 034 041 047 063 075 084 085 088 094 101 107 111 117 124 129 131 139 142 145
Sporobolus cryptandrus (C-3)
Monocultures 90 090
2-species plots 45 020
4-species plots 22.5 008 038 054 058 112 121
6-species plots 15 009 052 061 082
8-species plots 11.25 002 023 040 048 072 115 137
12-species plots 7.5 013 016 026 044 068 074 093 095 120 132 138 144
24-species plots 3.75 007 015 017 019 028 034 041 047 063 075 084 085 088 094 101 107 111 117 124 129 131 139 142 145
Vicia villosa (Legume)
2-species plots 45 005 086 113
4-species plots 22.5 008 018 030 054 091
6-species plots 15 022 080 102
8-species plots 11.25 023 031 056 072 077 115 116 122 147
12-species plots 7.5 001 016 044 046 057 064 074 093 095 118 138
24-species plots 3.75 007 015 017 019 028 034 041 047 063 075 084 085 088 094 101 107 111 117 124 129 131 139 142 145
 

Species assigned to each plot

The species assigned to each plot are listed below via a species abbreviation. The second column, marked T, describes the treatment (number of species in the plot). The third column shows the functional groups present (3=C3 grasses, 4=C4 grasses, F=non-legume forbs, L=legumes).

Plot T 34FL Species
001F 0111 Achmi Asctu Astca Bucda Eupco Lesca Panvi Rudse Schsc Solne Sornu Vicvi
002E 1111 Achmi Anecy Asctu Koecr Lesca Poapr Sornu Spocr
003B 0110 Achmi Bougr
004A 0010 Anecy
005B 0101 Andge Vicvi
006A 0001 Lesca
007G 1111 Achmi Agrsm Andge Anecy Asctu Astaz Astca Bougr Bucda Corpa Elyca Eupco Koecr Lesca Liaas Panvi Petpu Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Sornu Spocr Vicvi
008C 1101 Panvi Sornu Spocr Vicvi
009 D 1111 Achmi Astca Bucda Rudse Schsc Spocr
010 A 0100 Panvi
011 A 0010 Astaz
012 B 0110 Astaz Bucda
013 F 1111 Achmi Agrsm Andge Anecy Liaas Panvi Petpu Rudse Schsc Solne Sornu Spocr
014 C 1111 Astaz Elyca Lesca Schsc
015 G 1111 Achmi Agrsm Andge Anecy Asctu Astaz Astca Bougr Bucda Corpa Elyca Eupco Koecr Lesca Liaas Panvi Petpu Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Sornu Spocr Vicvi
016 F 1111 Agrsm Astca Bucda Elyca Eupco Koecr Panvi Poapr Schsc Solne Spocr Vicvi
017 G 1111 Achmi Agrsm Andge Anecy Asctu Astaz Astca Bougr Bucda Corpa Elyca Eupco Koecr Lesca Liaas Panvi Petpu Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Sornu Spocr Vicvi
018 C 1111 Koecr Liaas Sornu Vicvi
019 G 1111 Achmi Agrsm Andge Anecy Asctu Astaz Astca Bougr Bucda Corpa Elyca Eupco Koecr Lesca Liaas Panvi Petpu Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Sornu Spocr Vicvi
020 B 1010 Astaz Spocr
021 A 0010 Achmi
022 D 1111 Achmi Agrsm Bucda Elyca Rudse Vicvi
023 E 1111 Achmi Astaz Bucda Eupco Koecr Rudse Spocr Vicvi
024 D 1011 Achmi Anecy Lesca Petpu Poapr Rudse
025 B 1001 Astca Koecr
026 F 1111 Achmi Agrsm Asctu Astaz Astca Elyca Koecr Lesca Petpu Schsc Solne Spocr
027 B 0110 Bucda Solne
028 G 1111 Achmi Agrsm Andge Anecy Asctu Astaz Astca Bougr Bucda Corpa Elyca Eupco Koecr Lesca Liaas Panvi Petpu Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Sornu Spocr Vicvi
029 D 1111 Andge Asctu Astca Eupco Koecr Liaas
030 C 1011 Koecr Petpu Rudse Vicvi
031 E 1011 Achmi Asctu Corpa Elyca Koecr Lesca Liaas Vicvi
032 D 0111 Andge Astaz Astca Corpa Lesca Solne
033 C 1110 Andge Corpa Elyca Sornu
034 G 1111 Achmi Agrsm Andge Anecy Asctu Astaz Astca Bougr Bucda Corpa Elyca Eupco Koecr Lesca Liaas Panvi Petpu Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Sornu Spocr Vicvi
035 C 0111 Astca Corpa Lesca Panvi
036 A 0010 Achmi
037 A 0100 Schsc
038 C 1010 Anecy Astaz Elyca Spocr
039 A 0010 Eupco
040 E 1111 Achmi Eupco Liaas Panvi Petpu Solne Sornu Spocr
041 G 1111 Achmi Agrsm Andge Anecy Asctu Astaz Astca Bougr Bucda Corpa Elyca Eupco Koecr Lesca Liaas Panvi Petpu Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Sornu Spocr Vicvi
042 C 1111 Astca Bougr Koecr Liaas
043 A 0010 Eupco
044 F 1111 Achmi Andge Anecy Astaz Astca Liaas Panvi Poapr Rudse Solne Spocr Vicvi
045 E 1111 Asctu Astca Bougr Koecr Lesca Petpu Poapr Schsc
046 F 1111 Achmi Agrsm Asctu Astaz Bucda Corpa Eupco Petpu Rudse Schsc Solne Vicvi
047 G 1111 Achmi Agrsm Andge Anecy Asctu Astaz Astca Bougr Bucda Corpa Elyca Eupco Koecr Lesca Liaas Panvi Petpu Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Sornu Spocr Vicvi
048 E 1111 Agrsm Anecy Bougr Bucda Elyca Lesca Sornu Spocr
049 A 0100 Andge
050 E 1111 Astaz Astca Corpa Elyca Liaas Panvi Schsc Solne
051 E 1111 Achmi Agrsm Asctu Elyca Panvi Petpu Rudse Sornu
052 D 1111 Andge Asctu Astca Eupco Koecr Spocr
053 B 1100 Koecr Sornu
054 C 1011 Anecy Elyca Spocr Vicvi
055 A 0100 Schsc
056 E 1111 Achmi Asctu Astaz Bucda Koecr Lesca Liaas Vicvi
057 F 1111 Agrsm Andge Asctu Astaz Bucda Eupco Koecr Lesca Liaas Poapr Rudse Vicvi
058 C 1101 Bucda Koecr Petpu Spocr
059 A 0010 Anecy
060 D 1111 Achmi Andge Koecr Liaas Petpu Rudse
061 D 1111 Andge Asctu Bucda Lesca Rudse Spocr
062 F 1111 Achmi Andge Asctu Astaz Bougr Elyca Koecr Lesca Panvi Petpu Poapr Sornu
063 G 1111 Achmi Agrsm Andge Anecy Asctu Astaz Astca Bougr Bucda Corpa Elyca Eupco Koecr Lesca Liaas Panvi Petpu Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Sornu Spocr Vicvi
064 F 1111 Achmi Agrsm Anecy Asctu Astaz Bougr Koecr Liaas Panvi Petpu Schsc Vicvi
065 C 0111 Astca Bucda Liaas Panvi
066 B 1010 Eupco Koecr
067 B 0110 Rudse Sornu
068 F 1111 Andge Anecy Astca Bougr Eupco Koecr Lesca Panvi Poapr Schsc Solne Spocr
069 D 1110 Corpa Elyca Eupco Poapr Rudse Sornu
070 D 1111 Agrsm Astca Bucda Petpu Solne Sornu
071 B 0110 Astaz Sornu
072 E 1111 Agrsm Andge Astaz Panvi Schsc Solne Spocr Vicvi
073 C 1111 Achmi Astca Koecr Sornu
074 F 1111 Agrsm Astca Bucda Elyca Eupco Koecr Liaas Petpu Schsc Solne Spocr Vicvi
075 G 1111 Achmi Agrsm Andge Anecy Asctu Astaz Astca Bougr Bucda Corpa Elyca Eupco Koecr Lesca Liaas Panvi Petpu Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Sornu Spocr Vicvi
076 A 0100 Panvi
077 E 1111 Achmi Anecy Bougr Elyca Eupco Solne Sornu Vicvi
078 D 1111 Agrsm Asctu Corpa Lesca Rudse Sornu
079 A 0001 Petpu
080 D 1101 Agrsm Andge Bucda Panvi Schsc Vicvi
081 B 1001 Koecr Lesca
082 D 1111 Astaz Bucda Corpa Koecr Lesca Spocr
083 B 1010 Agrsm Eupco
084 G 1111 Achmi Agrsm Andge Anecy Asctu Astaz Astca Bougr Bucda Corpa Elyca Eupco Koecr Lesca Liaas Panvi Petpu Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Sornu Spocr Vicvi
085 G 1111 Achmi Agrsm Andge Anecy Asctu Astaz Astca Bougr Bucda Corpa Elyca Eupco Koecr Lesca Liaas Panvi Petpu Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Sornu Spocr Vicvi
086 B 0101 Sornu Vicvi
087 A 0100 Schsc
088 G 1111 Achmi Agrsm Andge Anecy Asctu Astaz Astca Bougr Bucda Corpa Elyca Eupco Koecr Lesca Liaas Panvi Petpu Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Sornu Spocr Vicvi
089 C 0111 Lesca Panvi Rudse Sornu
090 A 1000 Spocr
091 C 0111 Astca Rudse Sornu Vicvi
092 B 1000 Elyca Poapr
093 F 1111 Agrsm Anecy Astaz Bucda Eupco Lesca Liaas Poapr Schsc Sornu Spocr Vicvi
094 G 1111 Achmi Agrsm Andge Anecy Asctu Astaz Astca Bougr Bucda Corpa Elyca Eupco Koecr Lesca Liaas Panvi Petpu Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Sornu Spocr Vicvi
095 F 1111 Agrsm Astaz Astca Eupco Lesca Panvi Petpu Rudse Schsc Solne Spocr Vicvi
096 F 1111 Achmi Agrsm Andge Asctu Astaz Astca Bougr Bucda Panvi Petpu Poapr Solne
097 B 1010 Achmi Agrsm
098 D 1111 Agrsm Astca Bougr Bucda Eupco Sornu
099 D 0111 Achmi Anecy Asctu Astca Lesca Panvi
100 E 0111 Asctu Bucda Corpa Eupco Lesca Liaas Rudse Schsc
101 G 1111 Achmi Agrsm Andge Anecy Asctu Astaz Astca Bougr Bucda Corpa Elyca Eupco Koecr Lesca Liaas Panvi Petpu Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Sornu Spocr Vicvi
102 D 1011 Agrsm Asctu Elyca Eupco Petpu Vicvi
103 A 0100 Sornu
104 E 1111 Achmi Andge Anecy Asctu Astca Elyca Petpu Sornu
105 D 1111 Achmi Astca Bougr Bucda Poapr Solne
106 D 1011 Anecy Astca Elyca Eupco Petpu Poapr
107 G 1111 Achmi Agrsm Andge Anecy Asctu Astaz Astca Bougr Bucda Corpa Elyca Eupco Koecr Lesca Liaas Panvi Petpu Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Sornu Spocr Vicvi
108 E 1110 Asctu Bougr Bucda Corpa Liaas Poapr Solne Sornu
109 C 1011 Achmi Koecr Lesca Petpu
110 F 1111 Andge Anecy Asctu Astaz Astca Bucda Elyca Eupco Liaas Panvi Petpu Sornu
111 G 1111 Achmi Agrsm Andge Anecy Asctu Astaz Astca Bougr Bucda Corpa Elyca Eupco Koecr Lesca Liaas Panvi Petpu Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Sornu Spocr Vicvi
112 C 1110 Astaz Eupco Sornu Spocr
113 B 0011 Asctu Vicvi
114 A 0100 Bucda
115 E 1111 Agrsm Andge Asctu Astca Eupco Solne Spocr Vicvi
116 E 1111 Anecy Astca Bougr Corpa Elyca Liaas Sornu Vicvi
117 G 1111 Achmi Agrsm Andge Anecy Asctu Astaz Astca Bougr Bucda Corpa Elyca Eupco Koecr Lesca Liaas Panvi Petpu Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Sornu Spocr Vicvi
118 F 1111 Andge Asctu Astca Corpa Elyca Eupco Lesca Petpu Poapr Solne Sornu Vicvi
119 F 1110 Achmi Agrsm Andge Asctu Astaz Bougr Bucda Eupco Panvi Poapr Rudse Solne
120 F 1111 Anecy Asctu Astaz Bucda Liaas Panvi Petpu Poapr Rudse Schsc Sornu Spocr
121 C 1110 Corpa Schsc Sornu Spocr
122 E 1011 Anecy Astaz Elyca Eupco Liaas Poapr Solne Vicvi
123 E 1011 Anecy Asctu Elyca Koecr Lesca Liaas Poapr Rudse
124 G 1111 Achmi Agrsm Andge Anecy Asctu Astaz Astca Bougr Bucda Corpa Elyca Eupco Koecr Lesca Liaas Panvi Petpu Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Sornu Spocr Vicvi
125 B 0001 Lesca Petpu
126 D 1111 Agrsm Anecy Astca Koecr Schsc Solne
127 C 0011 Anecy Astaz Lesca Solne
128 A 0100 Andge
129 G 1111 Achmi Agrsm Andge Anecy Asctu Astaz Astca Bougr Bucda Corpa Elyca Eupco Koecr Lesca Liaas Panvi Petpu Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Sornu Spocr Vicvi
130 A 0010 Asctu
131 G 1111 Achmi Agrsm Andge Anecy Asctu Astaz Astca Bougr Bucda Corpa Elyca Eupco Koecr Lesca Liaas Panvi Petpu Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Sornu Spocr Vicvi
132 F 1111 Achmi Agrsm Andge Astaz Astca Bougr Bucda Eupco Panvi Poapr Schsc Spocr
133 F 1111 Agrsm Anecy Asctu Astaz Astca Bougr Corpa Koecr Lesca Petpu Poapr Sornu
134 C 0110 Astaz Eupco Liaas Sornu
135 D 1110 Achmi Anecy Eupco Koecr Liaas Schsc
136 B 1100 Andge Koecr
137 E 1110 Bucda Corpa Liaas Panvi Poapr Solne Sornu Spocr
138 F 1111 Achmi Agrsm Andge Asctu Astca Bougr Lesca Rudse Schsc Solne Spocr Vicvi
139 G 1111 Achmi Agrsm Andge Anecy Asctu Astaz Astca Bougr Bucda Corpa Elyca Eupco Koecr Lesca Liaas Panvi Petpu Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Sornu Spocr Vicvi
140 C 0111 Anecy Astca Bucda Solne
141 B 0100 Bougr Schsc
142 G 1111 Achmi Agrsm Andge Anecy Asctu Astaz Astca Bougr Bucda Corpa Elyca Eupco Koecr Lesca Liaas Panvi Petpu Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Sornu Spocr Vicvi
143 B 0110 Andge Anecy
144 F 1110 Achmi Anecy Asctu Astaz Bougr Bucda Corpa Koecr Panvi Rudse Sornu Spocr
145 G 1111 Achmi Agrsm Andge Anecy Asctu Astaz Astca Bougr Bucda Corpa Elyca Eupco Koecr Lesca Liaas Panvi Petpu Poapr Rudse Schsc Solne Sornu Spocr Vicvi
146 F 1111 Andge Anecy Asctu Astca Bougr Elyca Lesca Panvi Petpu Poapr Schsc Sornu
147 E 1111 Asctu Astca Bucda Eupco Panvi Poapr Sornu Vicvi
 

Species counts

Species were assigned to plots randomly, so the number of plots a given species appears in varies. Here is a summary by species.

Functional Group Species Abbreviation Number of Plots
C3 Agropyron smithii Agrsm 51
C3 Elymus canadensis Elyca 49
C3 Koeleria cristata Koecr 56
C3 Poa pratensis Poapr 49
C3 Sporobolus cryptandrusSpocr 55
C4 Andropogon gerardi Andge 51
C4 Bouteloua gracilis Bougr 44
C4 Buchloe dactyloides Bucda 57
C4 Panicum virgatum Panvi 53
C4 Schizachyrium scopariumSchsc 52
C4 Sorghastrum nutans Sornu 62
Forb Achillea millefolium Achmi 57
Forb Anemone cylindrica Anecy 53
Forb Asclepias tuberosa Asctu 58
Forb Aster azureusAstaz 55
Forb Coreopsis palmata Corpa 41
Forb Euphorbia corollata Eupco 56
Forb Liatris aspera Liaas 49
Forb Rudbeckia hirta Rudhi 49
Forb Solidago nemoralis Solne 52
LegumeAstragalus canadensis Astca 61
LegumeLespedeza capitata Lesca 56
LegumePetalostemum purpureum Petpu 51
LegumeVicia villosa Vicvi 55
Mean 53
 

This experiment uses at least 20 replicates of each treatment, as shown in the following table.

Treatment Number of Species Number of Plots
A 1 20
B 2 20
C 4 20
D 6 20
E 8 20
F 12 23
G 24 24
Total 147
 

Species in Experiment

The experiment comprises the following 24 species in four functional groups.

Group Species Abbreviation
C3 Agropyron smithii Agrsm
C3 Elymus canadensis Elyca
C3 Koeleria cristata Koecr
C3 Poa pratensis Poapr
C4 Sporobolus cryptandrusSpocr
C4 Andropogon gerardi Andge
C4 Bouteloua gracilis Bougr
C4 Buchloe dactyloides Bucda
C4 Panicum virgatum Panvi
C4 Schizachyrium scopariumSchsc
C4 Sorghastrum nutans Sornu
Forb Achillea millefolium Achmi
Forb Anemone cylindrica Anecy
Forb Asclepias tuberosa Asctu
Forb Aster azureusAstaz
Forb Coreopsis palmata Corpa
Forb Euphorbia corollata Eupco
Forb Liatris aspera Liaas
Forb Rudbeckia hirta Rudhi
Forb Solidago nemoralis Solne
LegumeAstragalus canadensis Astca
LegumeLespedeza capitata Lesca
LegumePetalostemum purpureumPetpu
LegumeVicia villosaVicvi
 

Summary of plots

In this experiment species were assigned to plots at random, without regard to functional group. From the random assignment of species, the functional groups for the 147 plots worked out as follows. The code under Groups indicates which column pertains to which funcational group (3=C3 grasses, 4=C4 grasses, F=Forbs, L=Legumes). The number in this column are coded as 1=present, 0=absent.

Treatment Code Number of Species Groups (34FL) Number of Plots
A 1 0001 2
A 1 0010 8
A 1 0100 9
A 1 1000 1
Total A 20
B 2 0001 1
B 2 0011 1
B 2 0100 1
B 2 0101 2
B 2 0110 6
B 2 1000 1
B 2 1001 2
B 2 1010 4
B 2 1100 2
Total B 20
C 4 0011 1
C 4 0110 1
C 4 0111 5
C 4 1010 1
C 4 1011 3
C 4 1101 2
C 4 1110 3
C 4 1111 4
Total C 20
D 6 0111 2
D 6 1011 3
D 6 1101 1
D 6 1110 2
D 6 1111 12
Total D 20
E 8 0111 1
E 8 1011 3
E 8 1110 2
E 8 1111 14
Total E 20
F 12 0111 1
F 12 1110 2
F 12 1111 20
Total F 23
G 24 1111 24
Total G 24
 

Treatment: grazing by sheep

In 2003 plots were split in half and fences put in to provide alleys for sheep grazing.

Treatments by plot

The following species occur in the experiment. The column Index this table indicates which column within C3, C4, Forbs, and Legumes of the table below this one refers to the particular species.

Index Name Abbreviation Group
1 Agropyron smithii Agrsm C3
2 Elymus canadensis Elyca C3
3 Koeleria cristata Koecr C3
4 Poa pratensis Poapr C3
5 Sporobolus cryptandrusSpocr C3
6 Andropogon gerardi Andge C4
7 Bouteloua gracilis Bougr C4
8 Buchloe dactyloides Bucda C4
9 Panicum virgatum Panvi C4
10 Schizachyrium scopariumSchsc C4
11 Sorghastrum nutans Sornu C4
12 Achillea millefolium Achmi Forb
13 Anemone cylindrica Anecy Forb
14 Asclepias tuberosa Asctu Forb
15 Aster azureus Astaz Forb
16 Coreopsis palmata Corpa Forb
17 Euphorbia corollata Eupco Forb
18 Liatris aspera Liaas Forb
19 Rudbeckia hirta Rudhi Forb
20 Solidago nemoralis Solne Forb
21 Astragalus canadensis Astca Legume
22 Lespedeza capitata Lesca Legume
23 Petalostemum purpureumPetpu Legume
24 Vicia villosa Vicvi Legume
 

The code 34FL described in the group column indicated which column refers to the function group given (3=C3 grasses, 4=C4 grasses, F=Forbs, L=Legumes). The numbers in the group column indicate whether a species in the corresponding functional group was planted (1) in the plot or not (0). The numbers 1-5, 6-11, 12-20, and 21-24 in C3, C4, Forbs, and Legumes, correspond to the index numbers above and to the column with the enumerations below them. The numbers in these columns are coded as 0=not planted, 1=planted.

Plot Treat-ment Number of Groups Group (34FL) Number of Species C3 1-5 C4 6-11 Forbs 12-20 Legumes 21-24
001 F 3 0111 12 00000 001111 101001011 1101
002 E 4 1111 8 00111 000001 111000000 0100
003 B 2 0110 2 00000 010000 100000000 0000
004 A 1 0010 1 00000 000000 010000000 0000
005 B 2 0101 2 00000 100000 000000000 0001
006 A 1 0001 1 00000 000000 000000000 0100
007 G 4 1111 24 11111 111111 111111111 1111
008 C 3 1101 4 00001 000101 000000000 0001
009 D 4 1111 6 00001 001010 100000010 1000
010 A 1 0100 1 00000 000100 000000000 0000
011 A 1 0010 1 00000 000000 000100000 0000
012 B 2 0110 2 00000 001000 000100000 0000
013 F 4 1111 12 10001 100111 110000111 0010
014 C 4 1111 4 01000 000010 000100000 0100
015 G 4 1111 24 11111 111111 111111111 1111
016 F 4 1111 12 11111 001110 000001001 1001
017 G 4 1111 24 11111 111111 111111111 1111
018 C 4 1111 4 00100 000001 000000100 0001
019 G 4 1111 24 11111 111111 111111111 1111
020 B 2 1010 2 00001 000000 000100000 0000
021 A 1 0010 1 00000 000000 100000000 0000
022 D 4 1111 6 11000 001000 100000010 0001
023 E 4 1111 8 00101 001000 100101010 0001
024 D 3 1011 6 00010 000000 110000010 0110
025 B 2 1001 2 00100 000000 000000000 1000
026 F 4 1111 12 11101 000010 101100001 1110
027 B 2 0110 2 00000 001000 000000001 0000
028 G 4 1111 24 11111 111111 111111111 1111
029 D 4 1111 6 00100 100000 001001100 1000
030 C 3 1011 4 00100 000000 000000010 0011
031 E 3 1011 8 01100 000000 101010100 0101
032 D 3 0111 6 00000 100000 000110001 1100
033 C 3 1110 4 01000 100001 000010000 0000
034 G 4 1111 24 11111 111111 111111111 1111
035 C 3 0111 4 00000 000100 000010000 1100
036 A 1 0010 1 00000 000000 100000000 0000
037 A 1 0100 1 00000 000010 000000000 0000
038 C 2 1010 4 01001 000000 010100000 0000
039 A 1 0010 1 00000 000000 000001000 0000
040 E 4 1111 8 00001 000101 100001101 0010
041 G 4 1111 24 11111 111111 111111111 1111
042 C 4 1111 4 00100 010000 000000100 1000
043 A 1 0010 1 00000 000000 000001000 0000
044 F 4 1111 12 00011 100100 110100111 1001
045 E 4 1111 8 00110 010010 001000000 1110
046 F 4 1111 12 10000 001010 101111011 0011
047 G 4 1111 24 11111 111111 111111111 1111
048 E 4 1111 8 11001 011001 010000000 0100
049 A 1 0100 1 00000 100000 000000000 0000
050 E 4 1111 8 01000 000110 000110101 1000
051 E 4 1111 8 11000 000101 101000010 0010
052 D 4 1111 6 00101 100000 001001000 1000
053 B 2 1100 2 00100 000001 000000000 0000
054 C 3 1011 4 01001 000000 010000000 0001
055 A 1 0100 1 00000 000010 000000000 0000
056 E 4 1111 8 00100 001000 101100100 0101
057 F 4 1111 12 10110 101000 001101110 0101
058 C 3 1101 4 00101 001000 000000000 0010
059 A 1 0010 1 00000 000000 010000000 0000
060 D 4 1111 6 00100 100000 100000110 0010
061 D 4 1111 6 00001 101000 001000010 0100
062 F 4 1111 12 01110 110101 101100000 0110
063 G 4 1111 24 11111 111111 111111111 1111
064 F 4 1111 12 10100 010110 111100100 0011
065 C 3 0111 4 00000 001100 000000100 1000
066 B 2 1010 2 00100 000000 000001000 0000
067 B 2 0110 2 00000 000001 000000010 0000
068 F 4 1111 12 00111 110110 010001001 1100
069 D 3 1110 6 01010 000001 000011010 0000
070 D 4 1111 6 10000 001001 000000001 1010
071 B 2 0110 2 00000 000001 000100000 0000
072 E 4 1111 8 10001 100110 000100001 0001
073 C 4 1111 4 00100 000001 100000000 1000
074 F 4 1111 12 11101 001010 000001101 1011
075 G 4 1111 24 11111 111111 111111111 1111
076 A 1 0100 1 00000 000100 000000000 0000
077 E 4 1111 8 01000 010001 110001001 0001
078 D 4 1111 6 10000 000001 001010010 0100
079 A 1 0001 1 00000 000000 000000000 0010
080 D 3 1101 6 10000 101110 000000000 0001
081 B 2 1001 2 00100 000000 000000000 0100
082 D 4 1111 6 00101 001000 000110000 0100
083 B 2 1010 2 10000 000000 000001000 0000
084 G 4 1111 24 11111 111111 111111111 1111
085 G 4 1111 24 11111 111111 111111111 1111
086 B 2 0101 2 00000 000001 000000000 0001
087 A 1 0100 1 00000 000010 000000000 0000
088 G 4 1111 24 11111 111111 111111111 1111
089 C 3 0111 4 00000 000101 000000010 0100
090 A 1 1000 1 00001 000000 000000000 0000
091 C 3 0111 4 00000 000001 000000010 1001
092 B 1 1000 2 01010 000000 000000000 0000
093 F 4 1111 12 10011 001011 010101100 0101
094 G 4 1111 24 11111 111111 111111111 1111
095 F 4 1111 12 10001 000110 000101011 1111
096 F 4 1111 12 10010 111100 101100001 1010
097 B 2 1010 2 10000 000000 100000000 0000
098 D 4 1111 6 10000 011001 000001000 1000
099 D 3 0111 6 00000 000100 111000000 1100
100 E 3 0111 8 00000 001010 001011110 0100
101 G 4 1111 24 11111 111111 111111111 1111
102 D 3 1011 6 11000 000000 001001000 0011
103 A 1 0100 1 00000 000001 000000000 0000
104 E 4 1111 8 01000 100001 111000000 1010
105 D 4 1111 6 00010 011000 100000001 1000
106 D 3 1011 6 01010 000000 010001000 1010
107 G 4 1111 24 11111 111111 111111111 1111
108 E 3 1110 8 00010 011001 001010101 0000
109 C 3 1011 4 00100 000000 100000000 0110
110 F 4 1111 12 01000 101101 011101100 1010
111 G 4 1111 24 11111 111111 111111111 1111
112 C 3 1110 4 00001 000001 000101000 0000
113 B 2 0011 2 00000 000000 001000000 0001
114 A 1 0100 1 00000 001000 000000000 0000
115 E 4 1111 8 10001 100000 001001001 1001
116 E 4 1111 8 01000 010001 010010100 1001
117 G 4 1111 24 11111 111111 111111111 1111
118 F 4 1111 12 01010 100001 001011001 1111
119 F 3 1110 12 10010 111100 101101011 0000
120 F 4 1111 12 00011 001111 011100110 0010
121 C 3 1110 4 00001 000011 000010000 0000
122 E 3 1011 8 01010 000000 010101101 0001
123 E 3 1011 8 01110 000000 011000110 0100
124 G 4 1111 24 11111 111111 111111111 1111
125 B 1 0001 2 00000 000000 000000000 0110
126 D 4 1111 6 10100 000010 010000001 1000
127 C 2 0011 4 00000 000000 010100001 0100
128 A 1 0100 1 00000 100000 000000000 0000
129 G 4 1111 24 11111 111111 111111111 1111
130 A 1 0010 1 00000 000000 001000000 0000
131 G 4 1111 24 11111 111111 111111111 1111
132 F 4 1111 12 10011 111110 100101000 1000
133 F 4 1111 12 10110 010001 011110000 1110
134 C 2 0110 4 00000 000001 000101100 0000
135 D 3 1110 6 00100 000010 110001100 0000
136 B 2 1100 2 00100 100000 000000000 0000
137 E 3 1110 8 00011 001101 000010101 0000
138 F 4 1111 12 10001 110010 101000011 1101
139 G 4 1111 24 11111 111111 111111111 1111
140 C 3 0111 4 00000 001000 010000001 1000
141 B 1 0100 2 00000 010010 000000000 0000
142 G 4 1111 24 11111 111111 111111111 1111
143 B 2 0110 2 00000 100000 010000000 0000
144 F 3 1110 12 00101 011101 111110010 0000
145 G 4 1111 24 11111 111111 111111111 1111
146 F 4 1111 12 01010 110111 011000000 1110
147 E 4 1111 8 00010 001101 001001000 1001
 

Treatments: Seed Addition

Viable seeds of 27 species that had not been planted in the biodiversity experiment but that already occurred at Cedar Creek Natural History Area were introduced into existing plots at the start of the fourth growing season (1997), by which time the established plants were mature flowering adults. For each of the 27 introduced species, 1 g of seed of each was placed in a container, mixed, and then added to a 1 m by 0.5 m subplot in each plot on June 10, 1997. All nonexperimental species were manually removed the first week of July 1997, but subplots were not weeded subsequently. All seeds were planted dry, without scarification or stratification. Seed Addition species planted:

Seed Addition SpeciesFunctional Group
Agrostis albaC3
Ambrosia artemisiifolia elatiorForb
Artemisia ludovicianaForb
Asclepias syriacaForb
Calamovilfa longifoliaC4
Cassia fasciculataLegume
Chenopodium albumForb
Desmodium canadenseLegume
Eragrostis trichodesC4
Festuca ovinaC3
Festuca rubraC3
Gnaphalium obtusifoliumForb
Helianthus laetiflorusForb
Medicago lupulinaLegume
Melilotus albaLegume
Melilotus officinalisLegume
Oenothera biennisForb
Penstemon grandiflorusForb
Phleum pratenseC3
Polygonum convolvulusForb
Potentilla argutaForb
Rumex acetosellaForb
Setaria lutescens (glauca)C4
Setaria viridisC4
Tragopogon dubius (major)Forb
Trifolium pratenseLegume
Trifolium repensLegume
 

adhe123 - Vac Sampling arthropod community

Vac Sampling arthropod community

Arthropods were sampled in the plots using D-vacs. Each sample consisted of all the arthropods caught in 8 8-inch diameter spots along the edge (in about 1 meter or so) of each plot. Samples were manually sorted under magnification, specimens identified to species or morphospecies within known families or genera and enumerated.

lpe123 - Percent light penetration

Light Measurments

Light reading have been taken at leaset annually from 1996 through 2000. Readings per plot were taken .5m from the edge of the plot. For each sampling period, the sampling was consistent from plot to plot and up to 12 locations within the plot were sampled. From 1982 to 1988, light meter readings were taken using a Li-Cor, Inc. Integrating Quantum/Radiometer/Photometer, model LI-188B. Two people were needed to take light readings with this system. One would hold the control box and record data and the other would hold the light sensor. The batteries would be checked before starting each session. If the batteries were OK, they would proceed to take readings. The sensor was connected to the control box by a relatively short cord, so the two people taking readings were required to stay close together. When taking readings, it was necessary to get a range value for each light value entered. If the integrating time of 1 second was not sufficient, it was increased to 10 seconds. This was also recorded. In 1989, two new light meters were acquired. These are SF Sunfleck Ceptometers, model SF-40 (40cm probe). They were purchased from Decagon Devices, Inc., P.O. Box 835, Pullman, WA 99163. One person can easily handle a ceptometer alone. This makes is possible for three people to get the readings done more quickly and easily. One person records data while the other two take readings from the plots simultaneously. No range values are needed. To take readings a person needs to select function #1 (PAR readings), position the probe (see below) and press ``A'' (read value). More than one reading can be taken and then averaged by pressing a certain sequence of letters (A, A, B, B, A). Measurements are taken within a 4 hour period, 2 hours on either side of solar noon. (Solar noon is half way between sunrise and sunset; it is not 1200 hours). Solar noon is at 1315 hours, Central Daylight Time. Samples are taken between 1115 hours and 1515 hours. Measurements are not taken when the plot being sampled is shaded. Light readings are done when the sky is clear, whenever possible. If a cloud passes over the plot being sampled, assistants wait for the cloud to pass before taking the readings. If the sky is mostly cloudy, light meter readings are not taken. Two measurements are taken in each plot. Each measurement consists of one reading above the vegetation and a second reading at ground level. Both values are taken to get the percent of sunlight above the vegetation that reaches ground level. In taking the above vegetation reading, the sensor must be kept level, held high above all vegetation, kept out of the shade (of plants and people) and it must be clean. When taking the below vegetation reading, at ground level, the sensor must be kept level, out of the soil and out of the shade created by people. In 1991, light meter readings were only taken in E026 and E055. Light profiles were taken using an A-shaped frame made of aluminum. Wires were strung across the frame at 10cm intervals. The frame was placed over the subplot being metered. A reading was taken over the top of the frame, and then at each 10cm level, by placing the light meter across the wires, starting at 90cm above the ground. Readings were taken every 10cm down the frame and again at ground level. Light Data Transformations: Light readings are transformed to obtain percent light penetration which represents the percent of light above the vegetation that reaches the ground surface. In cases where the experiment involves shading, another variable is computed to reflect the percent of sun light that reaches above the canopy. This variable is called light available. In the case of absence of artificial shades, the latter is set to 1. percent light penetration = ( Light below canopy / Light above canopy ). percent light available = ( Light below shade / Light above shade ).

nbe123 - Plant aboveground biomass carbon and nitrogen

Sampling Methods

Aboveground biomass from each plot has been sampled by clipping 3m x 0.1m strips. The biomass has been sorted, dried, and weighed separately for each strip. Different areas of the plot have been sampled each year. The content of carbon and nitrogen in above ground and below ground biomass periodically ascertained.

ne123 - Soil nitrogen

Sampling Methods

Soil Sampling. Soil cores have been taken within the plot for analysis of soil nitrate. The samples have been taken in the rooting zone (0-20 cm depths), and occasionally sampled below the rooting zone (40-60 cm depths). Additionally, cores have been taken for analysis of total nitrogen and carbon content.

nle123 - Litter carbon and nitrogen

Sampling Methods

Aboveground standing plant and litter biomass were measured with one 10 cm by 1 m strip for each plot, clipped in July 1997, and sorted into the individual species. For each plot two litterbags were filled with a 1 g sample of the standing biomass of all species present in the July clipped biomass sample. The biomass of each species in the sample was proportional to its biomass in the plot. Note that we used standing mid-season biomass rather than senesced litter. Litterbags were made from polyester with a mesh of 0.1 mm and measured 5 x 10 cm. An aluminum tag was attached to each bag, and each bag was held to the soil surface with a flag in the same location in each plot. Bags were placed in the field in the first week of November 1997 and removed in the first week of November 1998.

For each plot, one bag was placed back in the original plot to measure in situ decomposition (n=147), and one was placed in a common garden (n=146); one plot did not have enough biomass for two bags, and a single bag was placed in situ. The common garden area was a Schizachyrium scoparium monoculture located 25 m south of the species richness plots.

In addition we filled litterbags with senesced Schizachyrium litter (0.35%N, SE 0.02, 47.5% C, SE 0.1, n=10) obtained from Prairie Restoration
(Princeton, Minn.). Samples of Code D, Schizachyrium control, were not subjected to field conditions.

One common substrate litterbag was placed within each experimental plot (n=147) and 25 bags were placed within the common garden. Thus, in total we employed four sets of litterbags; two from the species richness plots, with one bag from each plot placed in situ and one in a common garden, and two sets of a uniform Schizachyrium litter, with one set placed within the species richness plots and one set in the common garden.

nme123 - Soil nitrate, ammonium, moisture and nitrogen mineralization

Sampling Methods

Soil cores have been taken within the plot for analysis of soil nitrate. The samples have been taken in the rooting zone (0-20 cm depths), and occasionally sampled below the rooting zone (40-60 cm depths).

nohe123 - Soil nitrate and ammonium

Sampling Methods

Soil cores have been taken within the plot for analysis of soil nitrate. The samples have been taken in the rooting zone (0-20 cm depths), and occasionally sampled below the rooting zone (40-60 cm depths).

nre123 - Root carbon/nitrogen data

Sampling Methods

Root biomass is sampled after clipping by collecting three 5 cm diameter x 20 cm deep cores per clipped strip. Roots are washed free of soil, sorted from other organic material, dried and weighed. After drying, biomass samples were ground with a standard Thomas Wiley Mill. Ground samples were placed in labelled glass scintillation vials and re-dried prior to lab analysis for percent carbon and nitrogen.

pce123 - Plant species percent cover data

Sampling Methods

Percent cover of each species is taken in 2 permanently marked quadrats within each plot. Percent cover of all the species together is taken in 2 quadrats associated with the permanently marked quadrats.

ple123 - Plant aboveground biomass data

Sampling Methods

Aboveground biomass from each plot has been sampled by clipping 3m x 0.1m strips. The biomass has been sorted, dried, and weighed separately for each strip. Different areas of the plot have been sampled each year. See aboveground vegetation sampling for details on equipment and other field methods.

rbe123 - Root biomass data

Sampling Methods

Aboveground biomass from each plot has been sampled by clipping 3m x 0.1m strips. Different areas of the plot have been sampled each year. Root biomass is sampled after clipping by collecting three 5 cm diameter x 20 cm deep cores per clipped strip. Roots are washed free of soil, sorted from other organic material, dried and weighed.