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Methods for Experiment 290 -

Summary of Cedar Creek experiments used for e290 - Dimensions of Biodiversity

e120 - Biodiversity II: Effects of Plant Biodiversity on Population and Ecosystem Processes

This experiment (often called the "Big" Biodiversity Experiment or Big Bio) determines effects of plant species numbers and functional traits on community and ecosystem dynamics and functioning. Planted in 1994, it manipulates the number of plant species in 168 plots, each 9 m x 9 m, by imposing plant species numbers of 1, 2, 4, 8, or 16 perennial grassland species. The species planted in a plot were randomly chosen from a pool of 18 species (4 species, each, of C4 grasses, C3 grasses, legumes, non-legume forbs; 2 species of woody plants). Its high replication (about 35 plots at each level of diversity) and large plots allow observation of responses of herbivorous, parasitoid and predator insects and allow additional treatments to be nested within plots.

e271 - FAB 1 : Forests and Biodiversity Experiment - High density diversity experiment

A forest biodiversity experiment (FAB) focused on trees of our region investigates the consequences of multiple dimensions of tree diversity for soil, food webs, plant communities and ecosystems. FAB is designed to unravel effects of three forms of biological diversity: species richness (SR), functional diversity (FD), and phylogenetic diversity (PD).
The experiment consists of 8,960 trees of 12 native species. Four of these species are gymnosperms: eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) and white (Pinus strobus), red (P. resinosa), and jack (P. banksiana) pine. The eight angiosperm species include red (Quercus rubra), pin (Q. ellipsoidalis), white (Q. alba), and bur (Q. macrocarpa) oak; red maple (Acer rubrum) and box elder (A. negundo); paper birch (Betula papyrifera); and basswood (Tilia americana).
Each of FABs three blocks (spaced 4.5 m apart) consists of either 46 or 47 square plots, each 3.5 m on the edge; plots are planted with one, two, five, or 12 species, with two-species plots additionally designed to tease apart functional and phylogenetic diversity. Each plot contains 64 trees, planted at 0.5 m intervals. Within a block, all trees are planted on a contiguous grid, without extra space in between plots.

e277 Consequences of intraspecific and interspecific biodiversity in willows and poplars for community processes and ecosystem function (BiWaP)

(est. 2014): trees of three species are planted at 0.5m in 27-tree plots that vary in species richness and genetic diversity . Plants were produced clonally, so each species is represented by three genotypes in the experiment and the exact genetic identity of each tree is known. This will allow for exploration of the joint effects of diversity within and among species. The specific aims of this project are to i) create an ecologically realistic, artificial plant community in which to investigate the relationship between biodiversity and ecological function over the next 5-15 years, ii) assess the unique and interacting effects of intraspecific tree diversity and interspecific tree diversity as drivers of ecological function in the community, and iii) provide a platform for collaboration with colleagues at the University of Minnesota and elsewhere who could take advantage of the study system to ask related questions. We hypothesize that: i) focal plant and whole ecosystem metrics of ecological function will be higher in the presence of higher intraspecific and interspecific tree diversity, ii) we will observe an additional synergistic increase in function as both types of diversity are experimentally increased, and iii) ecological functions will respond to increasing diversity in unique ways. The primary motivation for this project is to orthogonally assess the roles of intraspecific and interspecific diversity in driving ecological function.

afse290 - Soil Extracellular Enzyme Activity

Instrumentation Soil Extracellular Enzyme Activity

Analyzed with Shimadzu TOC-V, Shimadzu Corporation, Kyoto, Japan

Protocol Soil Extracellular Enzyme Activity

Soil from e120 plots was sampled to a depth of 10 cm (2 cm diameter). Five soil cores were sampled from each plot and composited into a single sample.

Fresh, 2 mm sieved soil was extracted with 0.05 M K2SO4 and filtered (Whatman No. 42; 2.5 mm pore size). A replicated soil sample was fumigated with chloroform in a vacuum for 72 h, extracted with 0.05 M K2SO4 and filtered. Filtered extracts were analyzed for total dissolved organic C and total dissolved N.

Results from this data are published in:
Cline, L. C., S. E. Hobbie, M. Madritch, C. R. Buyarski, D. Tilman and J. M. Cavender-Bares (2017). "Resource availability underlies the plant-fungal diversity relationship in a grassland ecosystem." Ecology, DOI: 10.1002/ecy.2075